By Wy Dot Com
Some say the New Music began with Debussy.
It is the opening flute piece of his Prelude a L’apres midi d’un faune of 1894: “It gently shakes loose from roots in diatonic (major-minor) tonality.” (Paul Griffiths).
One of the main contributions to this is the deliberate avoidance of key signatures: “the first two bars of the flute melody… fill in the space between C sharp and G…The third bar indicates an arrival in the key of B major. But diatonic harmony is now only one possibility among many…”(ibid).
This must be set against the contemporary background of Romantic music, particularly Wagner’s epic cycles. Many looked on these as a new flowering of Romantic music, but Debussy maybe better caught the tone of the times: Wagner was “… a beautiful sunset which was taken for a dawn.” (ibid).
Alban Berg was born in 1885, in Vienna. He initially made his living as a bookkeeper. He also took part time classes in composition with Arnold Schoenberg from the age of twenty. Schoenberg at this time was a leader of the current avant-garde. By 1909, Schoenberg produced his Three Pieces for Piano, which was the first wholly atonal music.
Atonal music dispenses with tonal keys and signatures, traditional harmonies and, instead, assigns an equal importance to all notes in the chromatic scale: there are no major or minor keys, and therefore no traditional melody.
Chromatic awareness slowly developed throughout the previous century: “ you only need to try humming along to Beethoven’s Grosse Fugue to realize that chromaticism had come a long way since Mozart.” (Joe Staines and Duncan Clark).
In some ways it was Wagner himself who brought this about, by taking tonality to breaking point “with music in which there are so many and such extreme modulations” (ibid).
One characteristic of atonal music was the belief the music must flow directly from the unconscious.
Schoenberg, Berg and Webern became known as chief amongst the Second Viennese School. (The First being Beethoven, Haydn etc.) The setting is important: Vienna, home of Freudian psychoanalysis, and the idea of the unconscious.
Berg’s tutelage finished when he was twenty-five. This was the year of his first fully achieved piece, the String Quartet Opus 3. The audience were bemused, even. Coupled with this was the problem of finding players capable and willing to take it on.
But Schoenberg was enthusiastic.
He was now to live solely by music
Berg stands out in the development of the new music, because of his janus-like stance: constantly referring to tonality but also developing atonality further and further. This is what gives him his richness, accessibility. Mahler’s 6th and 9th Symphonies become as much reference points as Schoenberg’s experiments with 12-tone structure.
This was part of a lingering Romanticism, along with a belief in the idea of the Freudian unconscious. The wonderful sonority of the Quartet Berg owes to a shared aesthetic with post-Romantic harmonics, and his appreciation of classical instrumentation.
The Lyric Suite of 1925, Berg’s next major piece, followed the development of atonal music through into serialism. The development was in the concentration on “small groups of notes which are rearranged and transposed in a multitude of ways… elaborate new arrangements and extensive cross-referencing between… movements.” (Griffiths), around a poem by Baudelaire. The main expressive impulse was unfulfilled desire: deep in the structure is a musical acrostic of a love affair: “The pitches… are often arranged so that the letters of their notes refer to the names A-lban B-erg (B flat) and H-annah (B) F-uchs and going on to obtain independent status.”
Griffiths notes, “The system governing the duration of the various chords consists of a numerical series binding for the whole passage: 5-4-3-2-1, 1-2-3-4-5. “ This row is submitted to a process of intensification where two tones each are “exchanged in all 12 tones… as well as the intervals in the chromatic scale.”(ibid).
This points up the failure of the reliance on the unconscious, of previous works.
As serialism flowered into its hay-day in the 1950s in America, it became notorious for a certain aridity of emotional content.
Parallel with the development of atonal music and serialism, were Stravinsky’s innovations in rhythmical organisation. His later work Agon proved a bridge between the two, thought to be antithetical, styles of composition.
As for Berg, with two operas behind him, Wozzeck, and Lulu (unfinished), his never very strong constitution gave way, and he succumbed to blood poisoning at the age of 50.
His legacy is a wonderful richness; and an emotive centre, expressed with cool, careful and rigorous tenacity.